Distribution of ABO and Rh-D blood groups among blood donors at a tertiary level hospital in lower Assam, India.
Author(s): Dipankar Baruah
ABO and Rhesus-D blood group antigens are genetically determined integral parts of red blood cell membrane. Among a total 35 blood groups systems and over 600 different blood group antigens discovered so far ABO and Rhesus are the most important blood group system. Importance of Rh-blood group system is due to immunogenicity, polymorphism and complexity of its antigens. Knowledge of ABO and Rh-D antigens and its distribution in population is essential not only for proper management of blood transfusion practice, but also in population genetic studies, in resolving medico-legal issues and also in compatibility testing. ABO and Rh-D grouping were done in 11,100 blood donors in the Blood Bank, Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Medical College & Hospital, Barpeta, Assam. Data on the frequency of ABO and Rh-D blood groups were reported in simple numbers and percentages. Among the various ABO and Rh -D blood groups, “O” (37.29%) group is the most common followed by “B” (33.88%), “A” (22.78%) and “AB” (6.05%) with a predominance’s of Rh positivity (97.34%). The remaining 2.66% was Rh-D negative. Study of distribution of blood group is not only important for effective management of blood bank and transfusion services but it is also essential for geographical information, genetic studies, clinical medicine and forensic medicine in addition to compatibility testing done before transfusion.
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