3D Printing & Pharmaceutical Manufacturing: Opportunities and Challenges
Author(s): Bhusnure O. G.*, Gholve V. S., Sugave B. K., Dongre R. C., Gore S. A., Giram P. S.
Many researchers have attempted to use computer-aided design (C.A.D) and computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) to realize a scaffold that provides a three-dimensional (3D) environment for regeneration of tissues and organs. As a result, several 3D printing technologies, including stereolithography, deposition modeling, inkjet-based printing and selective laser sintering have been developed. Because these 3D printing technologies use computers for design and fabrication, and they can fabricate 3D scaffolds as designed; as a consequence, they can be standardized. Growth of target tissues and organs requires the presence of appropriate growth factors, so fabrication of 3Dscaffold systems that release these biomolecules has been explored. A drug delivery system (D.D.S) that administrates a pharmaceutical compound to achieve a therapeutic effect in cells, animals and humans is a key technology that delivers biomolecules without side effects caused by excessive doses. 3D printing technologies and D. D. Ss have been assembled successfully, so new possibilities for improved tissue regeneration have been suggested. If the interaction between cells and scaffold system with biomolecules can be understood and controlled, and if an optimal 3D tissue regenerating environment is realized, 3D printing technologies will become an important aspect of tissue engineering research in the near future. 3D Printing promises to produce complex biomedical devices according to computer design using patient-specific anatomical data. Since its initial use as pre-surgical visualization models and tooling molds, 3D Printing has slowly evolved to create one-of-a-kind devices, implants, scaffolds for tissue engineering, diagnostic platforms, and drug delivery systems. Fuelled by the recent explosion in public interest and access to affordable printers, there is renewed interest to combine stem cells with custom 3D scaffolds for personalized regenerative medicine. Before 3D Printing can be used routinely for the regeneration of complex tissues (e.g. bone, cartilage, muscles, vessels, nerves in the craniomaxillofacial complex), and complex organs with intricate 3D microarchitecture (e.g. liver, lymphoid organs), several technological limitations must be addressed. Until recently, tablet designs had been restricted to the relatively small number of shapes that are easily achievable using traditional manufacturing methods. As 3D printing capabilities develop further, safety and regulatory concerns are addressed and the cost of the technology falls, contract manufacturers and pharmaceutical companies that experiment with these 3D printing innovations are likely to gain a competitive edge. This review compose the basics, types & techniques used, advantages and disadvantages of 3D printing
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